The Australian Cattle Dog, originally known as the Queensland Blue Heeler, was specifically created by early ranchers in Australia who needed a dog capable of handling sheep and cattle in the wide-open spaces of that country. (A Heeler is a dog that works the cattle by nipping at their heels.) In the 1830s, a hardy, yet noisy, breed known as the Smithfield was crossed with the quiet, steadfast wild dog of Australia, the Dingo. The result was quieter, it was also more unruly and a strong biter. This dog has crossed again with other breeds such as the blue merle Smooth Collie to regain control, the Dalmatian to regain temperament, especially around horses, and the Australian Kelpie to regain herding instincts. The final result was manageable herding and working dog with superb temperament and intelligence, able to work tirelessly over large areas in harsh conditions and very high temperatures, and in wide or closed spaces. The breed was officially recognized in 1903 by the New South Wales Kennel Club when it was renamed the Australian Cattle Dog. It remains still today as a true and prized herding dog in Australia, as well as in North America. The breed requires plenty of outdoor exercises.